Oral Glucose Tolerance Test (OGTT)

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The oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) is a standard assay to evaluate glucose tolerability and insulin resistance.  In a typical OGTT animals are first fasted and then presented with a bolus dose of glucose by oral administration. Plasma glucose levels are then monitored at several time points post-glucose challenge which forms a glucose response curve. The data can also be summarized by calculating an area-under-the-curve (AUC) for the plasma glucose. This model evaluates a test articles ability to attenuate the level of postprandial glucose excursion and thereby reduce the AUC.

Several pharmacological classes can effectively regulate this glucose tolerability response including sulfonylureas, thiazolidinediones (PPARγ agonists; glitazones), metformin (Glucophage®), GLP-1s, SGLT-2 inhibitors and DPP-4 inhibitors. These drug classes are also clinically approved for use in humans.

In the study summarized below, we illustrate the validation of a mouse OGTT model by administering a glucose challenge to mice and showing the effects of metformin.

Blood glucose levels during the oral glucose tolerance test in vehicle and metformin treated mice.

Oral Glucose Tolerance Test. Animals were fasted overnight. Metformin or vehicle was administered 15 minutes prior to glucose administration (T= -15). Glucose was administered at T=0 and at a level of 1.5g/kg. Blood glucose levels were evaluated thirty minutes prior to dosing (-30 min), immediately post-dose (0 minutes) and then 15, 30, 60, 90, 120 and 180 minutes following vehicle or Metformin administration. The Metformin treated mice exhibited a reduction in blood glucose levels after glucose challenge. Data are mean ± SEM; **p<0.01, ****p<0.0001 compared to vehicle (N=6).